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Lorenzo Cogotti f214c5e42d [lonetix/sys] Only use posix_fadvise() and fdatasync() on Linux.
Some platforms don't offer these functions (e.g. Apple).
3 years ago
bgp [lonetix/bgp] Optimize BGP VM code by adding more terminating instructions and factorize their code; remove obsolete ASMTCH instruction, redirecting it to FASMTC 3 years ago
cpr [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
include/df [lonetix/bgp] Fix Bgp_VmDoBreak() logic for nested BLKs 3 years ago
sys [lonetix/sys] Only use posix_fadvise() and fdatasync() on Linux. 3 years ago
utf [*] Initial commit 3 years ago [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
argv.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
bufio.c [lonetix/bufio] Optimize buffer write operations avoiding copies, also introduce smallbytecopy.h 3 years ago
lexer.c [lonetix/lexer] Fix octal number parsing and minor typo fixes 3 years ago
mem.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
mem_file.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
numlib_atof.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
numlib_atoi.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
numlib_fltp.h [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
numlib_ftoa.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
numlib_itoa.c [lonetix/numlib] Make use of smallbytecopy.h for integer conversion result copy 3 years ago
smallbytecopy.h [lonetix/smallbytecopy] Add optimized routines for small byte buffer copies. 3 years ago
stm.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
stricmp.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
strncatz.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
strncpyz.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago
strnicmp.c [*] Initial commit 3 years ago

Low-overhead Networking library Interface

Introdution and philosophy

lonetix is a general, performance oriented, C networking library. Its field of application leans towards high-performance analysis of Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) data.

lonetix is somewhat opinionated, its principles are:

  • efficiency: lonetix has to be fast and versatile;
  • predictability: data structures and functions should be predictable and reflect the actual protocol, abstraction should not degenerate into alienation;
  • zero copy and zero overhead: be friendly to your target CPU and cache, you never know just how fast or poweful the target platform will be, ideally lonetix should be capable of performing useful work on embedded systems as well as full fledged power systems alike;
  • lean: try to be self-contained and only introduce dependencies when necessary.

Following sections further elaborate on these points.


Network analysis is usually thought as a computationally intensive task, involving powerful machines capable of crunching large datasets. Fast prototyping is tipically preferred over carefully planned, optimized code and tools. Our belief is that careful optimizations, good algorithms and general libraries may empower scientific research to productively elaborate data faster.

Efficient algorithms and tools make previously prohibitive tasks plausible.

Some researchers have no access to powerful workstations, though devices commonly available to the general public are capable enough to perform interesting network analysis tasks.

Good tools should not restrict research, they should encourage it.

Efficiency should be a guiding principle behind lonetix, and the main reason for choosing C as a language.


lonetix is a relatively low-level C library. As such it deals with common software engineering problems. In contrast with common opinion, C has sufficient means to define a decent level of abstraction. Powerful abstractions have to be formalized, documented, explained and learned. Once this process is complete, powerful abstractions need to be used correctly. Therefore, powerful abstractions need expensive engineering and comprehensive documentation, they imply a learning curve and a period of practice.

Abstraction is a key software engineering concept only valuable if worthwhile.

Excessive abstraction may distract too much from the intent of a programming interface, making it more obfuscated, less obvious, thus less predictable. Additionally, it makes it harder for a programmer using them to guess or estimate their performance penalty -- a particularly undesirable feature in a scenario where such estimate could be crucial. Whenever possible an interface should be transparent to the programmer, essential, immediate in conveying its purpose and model, keep its field of application clear and confined.

lonetix builds complex abstraction only in face of a sufficient gain. Simplicity is a virtue, and obvious solutions need less explaination. Oftentimes, solving a large problem with clear straight to the point code is testament of a solid approach.

Zero copy

lonetix deals, for the most part, with BGP messages. Decoding them, ensuring their integrity and accessing their fields conveniently and efficiently is central to the usefulness of the library.

Most libraries that read messages encoded in a particular protocol, take the common approach of introducing a decode phase upfront, with the intent of transforming its raw data into a more palatable representation for the library. The obvious advantages of this approach are:

  • an efficient resulting data structure that makes it easy to access every message field when needed;
  • any data integrity error is detected upfront, during the transformation.

Situation is specular for message writing.

This approach comes with its own set of disadvantages, though:

  • an initial decoding phase implies the whole message is scanned at least once to organize it in the new data structure, even when only a single field of the entire message would be relevant to the user;
  • CPU architectures greatly benefit from cache reuse, introducing a decode phase upfront that moves data around from a plain byte buffer to a complex data structure is usually bad news to the CPU cache;
  • more data structures generally imply more memory allocations;
  • translating raw data to the target data structure and back may require more complex API and implementation than providing equivalent facilities to access raw data directly.

These reasons motivated lonetix to explore a more trivial zero-copy approach: whenever possible lonetix should work with raw BGP messages and require no unnecessary data copy.

Do note that this approach is not perfect either. We simply believe that the tradeoff is to lonetix advantage, and a zero copy approach fits better in a performance-oriented and predictable library.

Same considerations apply to any portions of the library facing similar situations (MRT data, other network protocols, etc...).

Zero overhead

lonetix provides comprehensive facilities for network analysis and additional utility functions for a wide variety of common tasks (including string utilities, text parsing, etc...). Library users should not be burdened with overhead for functionality they don't need.

By design lonetix should be modular and require no runtime overhead (such as background threads, atexit() hooks, or static initialization) unless deemed as positively and unmistakably unavoidable.

lonetix is a static library, making it possible for the compiler to strip any unused code from the resulting binary.

Careful coding should always allow to compile the library with full optimizations on, including Link Time Optimization (whether the binary should be optimized for space or speed should be configurable by the user).


No external dependency should be introduced unless strictly necessary. This helps improving portability and makes lonetix usable even under constrained environments.

lonetix does not pursue strict ABI or API stability.

Given that lonetix is a static library, keeping ABI stability is unnecessary. Strict API stability tends to clutter libraries with large amounts of legacy code, lonetix strives for incremental code improvement. This sometimes calls for changes to the API and minor interface variations. Users wishing for specific features from older versions that have been evicted or changed on current ones, may fetch the older versions and link to them. Though API stability is not guaranteed, it should not be broken deliberately, viable code migration paths should be offered when possible, for sensible use cases.

Documentation and examples

Complete project documentation is currently work in progress.

Extensive Doxygen API documentation is available for most of the library. We also believe code should be clear, understandable and idiomatic, so you can check out the code of any utility using lonetix (for example bgpgrep) as a reference of how to take advantage of the library.


lonetix is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 as published by the Free Software Foundation, or, at your choice, any subsequent version of the same license. lonetix is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the license terms for more details.

See COPYING.LESSER under the Micro BGP Suite root project directory for the GNU Lesser General Public License terms, or see the Free Software Foundation website.